Autumn in broad leafed woodland

Photo: Intricate Explorer on Unsplash

CO₂RE – the Greenhouse Gas Removal Hub


The CO2RE Greenhouse Gas Removal Hub (CO2RE) is a UKRI-funded gateway to research expertise on Greenhouse Gas Removal (GGR). The programme focuses on solutions-led research into economically, socially, and environmentally scalable GGR options. 

We carry out research, coordinate demonstration projects, connect to other national and international programmes, and commission grants through a flexible fund. To date, this is the largest GGR programme funded by the UK government and will enable the country to lead in the push towards global net-zero emissions.

Our work

In order to achieve a net zero emission economy by 2050 and potentially net-negative emissions thereafter, we need an effective means of removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere in addition to a dramatic reduction in emissions. This requires the creation and scaling up of a global GGR industry. In the UK alone, GGR needs to be capable of removing around 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year by 2050. To achieve the increase in scale in such a short time frame:

  • Technologies must be cheaper to implement
  • Business models need to be developed
  • Publicly acceptable and socially robust economic policies, and legal and regulatory frameworks must be in place.

Our multi-disciplinary research explores the new science, social permissions, policies and business ideas needed to encourage growth of the GGR industry. We emphasise the need for dialogue with stakeholders from society, and ensure that policy and regulatory frameworks are put in place with incentives to support rapid growth.

In addition to our cross-cutting research, our rigorous approach will ensure that GGR techniques are developed rapidly, effectively, and responsibly alongside action to reduce emissions. Our overarching objectives are:

  • Supportive policies: We will provide robust, implementable and equitable options for policy and governance, support for bankable business models for sustainable GGR deployment.
  • Scalable technologies: We are developing an evaluation framework for the Demonstrators and other GGR techniques which covers lifecycle assessment, economic costs, environmental impact, governance, and social perceptions. Our aim is to accelerate development of promising, globally scalable GGR, and sift out ineffective options.
  • Enhanced capacity: We are building a GGR research & innovation community by linking projects within the Programme as well as with other national and international initiatives. We will explore additional funding to deliver legacy activities, as well as develop transparent and robust decision-support processes to help stakeholders and champions shape and use GGR effectively.

The State of Carbon Dioxide Removal

state of Cdr report cover
Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) involves capturing carbon dioxide (CO₂) from the atmosphere and storing it for decades to millennia on land, in the ocean, in geological formations or in products.

Innovation in CDR has expanded substantially, exemplified by R&D, in patents and capacity investment. CDR has been subject of increasing public attention, and the peer-reviewed scientific literature now consists of over 28,000 English-language studies, growing at a faster rate than for climate change as a whole. 

In 2023, the Smith School led the first comprehensive assessment of the global state of carbon dioxide removal. 

Visit the State of Carbon Dioxide Removal website or download the report (PDF).

Demonstrator projects

Five interdisciplinary research projects will feed into longer-term government decision-making on the most effective technologies to reduce CO2 emissions.

Who we are

CO2RE is funded through and coordinates the UKRI SPF Greenhouse Gas Removal (GGR) Demonstrators Programme. Backed by seven institutions and located here at the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, our multidisciplinary team spans ages, genders and expertise, working closely with policymakers, the public and industry.


  • University of Oxford
  • Imperial College London
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Bristol
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Manchester
  • University College London